After doing research on the Innu Nation as part of an assignment in the class EAS2101: Colonialism and Indigenous Peoples with professor Tracy Lynn Coates at the University of Ottawa, I became very attached and fascinated by this nation. So, to better understand this nation, I booked a flight to Goose Bay, Labrador during the holiday break to learn about the Innu in a way books could not teach me.
Who are the Innu Nation?
The Innu, also known as the Montagnais, live in the eastern and northern portion of the Québec-Labrador peninsula. Today there are over 16,000 Innu who live in eleven communities in Québec and two in Labrador, but the term Innu Nation formally represents the Innu of Labrador. There are approximately 2200 persons, most of who live in the two Innu communities of Sheshatshiu and Natuashish in Labrador.
During my visit, I had the chance the go to Shetshatshiu (about 40 km from Goose Bay, where I was staying with my friend and her family). Here are some of the things I learnt that I need to share.
First Hudson Bay Company trading post in Canada
I felt almost uncomfortable standing here… To me, this building represents the beginning of the end for the Innu Nation’s way of life.
At first, fur traders were not dramatically changing the nomadic life of the Innu Nation. It’s in the 19th century, when trappers started insisting that the Innu trap furs full-time instead of hunting the caribou like they had always done, when the impact really started. As a result of giving up their traditional hunting practices and becoming fur experts instead, the Innu became very dependent on the European’s economic practices for survival, food and supplies. When the drop in fur prices occurred during the Great Depression, this made things difficult for the Innu’s new imposed way of life. To make things even more difficult, there was a decline in the caribou population during the 1930’s. The Innu starved and were impoverished. Many felt like they had no option but to look for help from government, the church and charitable organizations.
The company’s arrival also introduced many different diseases such as Smallpox which devastated the Innu Nation and many more Indigenous Nations.
Meeting Elizabeth Penashue
I was a little starstruck meeting Elizabeth Penashue, an elder and one of the first woman to go to jail for Low-Level Flying protests. The low-level flying exercises from the Goose Bay Air Base had a negative impact on the Innu. The jets created an abrupt blast of noise that would make the tent canvass shake, scare the children, and scare off the animals that the Innu hunted and depended on for food and survival.
She talked about the Innu’s traditional lifestyle and relationship with the land. She approaches conflicts with courage and dignity, conquers fears and serves as an inspiration to others. She has protected the rights of the Innu children to be educated in Innu-ainum, their traditional language, and also in a way that made justice to their heritage.
Her efforts have drawn a lot of attention to the Innu struggles. Through her winter walks, canoe trips, speeches and so much more, she is reviving her traditional culture and making a difference for her people and the generations to come.
“The government is not from here. People come from outside to work, once they’ve finished their work, they go back home without really thinking about what they’ve done… to our animals, rivers, medicine, people, land… they should respect those things… not just money and business. I feel very sad when I think about it.”
I used to think that the farther North you go in Canada, the more the land is preserved and untouched. But unfortunately, as I apprehend after my visit, that’s not the case.
These signs are up everywhere. The scenery is so beautiful here, and from a first look, you wouldn’t think that residents can no longer farm, pick berries or hunt on their land because of the pollution left from a former American military site. I can’t imagine how hard this must be for a nation who treated the land as their pharmacy, their educator, their place for proving leadership and their source of spirituality. The land is a storehouse of wildlife and natural resources that have sustained them for generations, and which, they hope, will continue to provide for them in future years.
During this reflection, I keep thinking of what Elizabeth shared with us: “When I think about the loss of our culture, land and animals; I pray, and I feel sad… inside my heart cries.” The soil is so contaminated… some things are growing but the land is still dead. It “makes my heart cry” too, and I want to help.
#makemuskratright movement in Labrador
Currently there is a strong group of Innu, as well as Inuit and settlers, taking part in the #makemuskratright movement in Labrador. It is a resistance to the awaiting flooding and health risk factors at the Muskrat Falls Hydro Electric near Happy Valley Goose Bay, Labrador. They are asking the provincial and federal governments to intervene to stop the injustice, to stop Nalcor and any funding toward it, and to respect the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People, which the Government of Canada signed off on in May 2016.
The Methyl Mercury produced by this project is making its way into the food chain and it is incredibly dangerous. It is easily absorbed in the body and through bioaccumulation up the food chain. When people harvest fish, seals, birds etc., it can be consumed at much higher levels than recommended by Health Canada. The over consumption can develop disabilities in children, cerebral palsy symptoms in adults, tremors, confusion and more. As a result, people will have to choose between eating traditional foods from fishing and hunting and potentially having health risks not only to themselves, but to their children.
For more information on what you can do to get involved and to help, follow their Facebook page Muskrat Falls Land Protectors and keep the discussion and awareness going.
I feel so privileged to now be learning about different Aboriginal cultures in Canada, like the Innu Nation. To the Innu, the land is their history, their culture, and their future. I’ve learnt about their defeats and sufferings, the challenges they have faced and the ones they are still facing today. Even with their difficult past, it’s amazing to see how they have been able to overcome the burdens placed on them and how they continue to defy their challenges. Sadly, the healing and rehabilitation process of these Nations won’t be possible if not all Canadians are mindful and aware of what went on and what is still going on today.